Modification of Pubic Hair

Cultural Views on Pubic Hair

Since the beginning of the 20th century, societal norms have caused a significant shift in the views towards pubic hair and pubic hair modification. In the early 20th Century, modesty was the dominating mindset regarding the way people groomed and thought about their pubic hair. This modest mindset began to change with the women's movement and the publication of media sources like Playboy Magazine. As revealing bathing suits and underwear grew in popularity, women felt increasing pressure to have their pubic hair nicely groomed. Pubic hair has since become a topic of concern for many women, adolescents, and even men.

Societal pressure may cause many people to feel like their pubic hair needs to be altered.  In reality, the appearance and texture of pubic hair differs among people. On some people, the hair is thick and coarse, while on other individuals it may be sparse and/or very fine. The color of pubic hair also tends to vary. Pubic hair and armpit hair can even differ from the hair of the scalp. For most individuals the pubic hair is darker, but in some cases this is not true. On most women, the pubic hair patch is triangular, with the top zone lying over the mons and extending down towards the anus. On most men, the pubic patch tapers upward to a line of hair pointing up towards the navel (commonly referred to as the “happy trail”).

In general, attitudes toward pubic hair are similar to those regarding underarm hair: cultural and personal norms are reflected by reactions that range from disgust to admiration. Some people feel their pubic hair makes them feel more masculine or feminine, while others may view their pubic hair with contempt.
Slang words for pubic hair include: pubes, bush, muff, curlies, beaver, etc.


What is the Purpose of Pubic Hair?

There is no definite answer as to why human beings have pubic hair, but theories do exist. The prevailing hypothesis relates to pheromones, which are the odors that the body produces that may be sexually stimulating to others. The hair that grows in both the genital area and under the armpits wicks erotic scents that are evaporated into the air and smelled by others. Another theory is that the pubic hair keeps the genitals warm or that, for females, the pubic hair prevents foreign particles from entering the vagina. Because this explanation does not address male pubic hair, a third theory suggests that pubic hair serves to absorb odors of the genital region.


Modification of Pubic Hair

Trimming or removing pubic hair has become quite common in many cultures. Removing the hair above the skin is referred to as depilation, whereas removing the entire hair (including the root) is epilation. The removal/trimming of body hair on a man is sometimes referred to as “manscaping”.

Reasons for the modification/ removal of pubic hair includes:

  • Hygiene, especially during menstruation
  • Aesthetics
  • Tradition
  • Religious beliefs
  • Sexual practices (i.e. oral sex, penile/vaginal sex, etc.)
  • Comfort Preferences


Removal/Modification Methods

There are a wide variety of methods used to remove or alter pubic hair. The most common short-term method for reducing or removing pubic hair is shaving, while the most common long-term methods include waxing or laser-hair removal. Below are descriptions of the various methods for pubic hair modification.


1. Shaving

A razor (straight razor, safety razor, or electric razor) is used to cut the hair at the level of the skin or relatively close to it. Prior to shaving, it is recommended that one first wets the area to be shaved and then applies shaving cream, soap, or body wash. This will help to prevent any nicks (cuts), bumps, blisters, ingrown hairs, and general irritation. Another important shaving tip is to make sure to shave in the direction of hair growth. Shaving against the grain of hair can also cause nicks (small cuts), bumps, blisters, etc. The effectiveness of this method may deteriorate when the blades begin to rust (they are not getting dull!). Soak the razor in white vinegar or another preferred cleanser to remove the rust.


2. Bikini Waxing

Waxing is a procedure that involves pulling out sections of hair using various types of waxes. To perform a bikini wax, a licensed, female esthetician or cosmetologist applies warm wax to a female's bikini line (inner thigh area), places cloth strips atop the wax, and then removes them by pulling the material off the skin. Often, a small thatch of hair is left above the vagina, sometimes in the shape of a heart or triangle.

Since this method can be very painful, pain-reducing gel is often recommended before applying the wax. It is possible that some skin irritation, bleeding and inflammation of the hair follicles can occur as a result of removing the wax, so do not be alarmed if this occurs. Wax should not be put on skin that is chapped, sunburned, or on the face of a person using facial products such as Retin-A or Differin (these weaken the skin and could result in skin tearing when the wax is pulled off). If a licensed esthetician or cosmetologist performs the waxing, treatment costs range from $25 to $50. Do-it-yourself waxing products can also be purchased and used in the comfort of your own home. Hair needs to be at least 1/8 inch long for waxing to be effective, so do not shave in the days or weeks leading up to your appointment. Results typially last 3-8 weeks.


3. Brazilian Waxing

The "Brazilian wax" is similar to a bikini wax, but it involves complete removal of hair from the vulva (outer and inner labia), perineum, anus, buttocks and mons, using a wax mixture made from natural beeswax and tall oil. This wax mixture is stronger and more effective at removing the thicker pubic hairs compared to the synthetic waxes frequently used for leg waxing. While the Brazilian bikini wax has long been associated with women, there are a growing number of men getting the male equivalent of the Brazilian bikini wax. The procedure is performed by licensed cosmetologists or estheticians at numerous spas and salons, but there are also do-it-yourself kits that can be used with care in the comfort of one's own home.


The Origin of Brazilian Waxing

Though genital waxing has grown in popularity over the past 20 years, the practice is not a new one. Waxing of the genital areas has been prevalent for centuries in Ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Arabia, Turkey and Persia. In the past, however, the waxes were sugar-based and made with lemon. The Brazilian wax specifically started on the beaches of Rio de Janeiro, where many young women wear gossamer bikinis called fila dental (as in dental floss). The Brazilian wax was introduced to the United States in 1987 when seven Brazilian sisters, Jocely, Jonie, Joyce, Janea, Jussara, Juracy and Judseia Padilha, opened a hair removal salon called J. Sisters International Salon in Manhattan, New York.


Typical Procedure:

  • Females may or may not be provided with a paper G-string. The client will then be asked to disrobe from the waist down and lay on a waxing table.
  • Talcum powder is then spread over the area to be waxed, which prevents the hot wax from sticking to the skin.
  • Hot wax is applied with a wax strip and given a short amount of time to harden. The wax strip is then pulled off in the opposite direction of hair growth with a cloth strip.
  • This process is repeated until all of the hair on the vulva, mons, perineum, and anus is removed. The application and removal of the wax is done in sections as the cosmetologist works around the client's body.
  • Once the waxing is complete, tweezers are used to remove any remaining stray hairs that were not removed during waxing.
  • The remaining strip of pubic hair on the mons verenis (often called a "landing strip") is trimmed or waxed depending on the client's request. If the remaining hair is trimmed, it may be dyed or shaped into various patterns, including triangles, hearts or squares. If the remaining hair is removed, the procedure is called a full Brazilian wax or Hollywood wax.


Men and women who want to take the risk of dyeing should avoid hair covering the genitals and only dye the hair that covers the pubic bone (the mons). The dye can cause irritation if applied to the lips of the vulva so it is recommended that area be avoided. For males, it is important to avoid the penile shaft and the scrotum because they both tend to be sensitive. Many people experience irritation or allergic reactions, including burning of the vaginal area, itching, blisters, redness or complete loss of hair. It is important to test for sensitivity first by doing a skin patch test 48 hours before attempting to tint hair. This entire Brazilian waxing session performed by a licensed cosmetologist or esthetician at a salon will typically last 15-30 minutes.


The Results:

The results from a Brazilian bikini wax typically last from 3 to 6 weeks, depending on the individual's hair re-growth rate. Re-growth of pubic hair is generally minimal during the first 2 weeks and increases by the third. Heat stimulates hair growth, so re-growth may be quicker in the summer months. With regular waxing, hair re-growth will generally slow down and the time between waxing sessions will increase.


"No Pain, No Gain"

It is normal to feel pain during a Brazilian or bikini wax; however, the severity of pain varies greatly among women. The most painful area is usually the mons verenis (the area above the clitoris), whereas the least painful is beneath the genitals and around the anus. The best time to have your pubic hair waxed is a week after menstruation, since the genital area is least sensitive during this time. In contrast, the pain is likely to be greatest immediately before and during menstruation, when the area is most tender. Typically the first Brazilian wax is the most painful. The pain should gradually decrease in subsequent waxing sessions when the hair is thinner and easier to pull out.


4. Tweezing

Tweezing is a laborious method that involves plucking each individual pubic hair. There may be pain, skin irritation, and inflammation of the hair follicle as a result of tweezing. Tweezers cost anywhere from $3 to $30. Results last about 3 to 8 weeks.


5. Laser Hair Removal and Intense Pulsed Light

Laser hair removal is FDA approved. Working with small areas of the skin, the laser beam destroys hair follicles and impairs hair regrowth. Redness or pigmentation changes of the skin may result after treatment. Laser treatment works best on people with light skin and dark hair, but may not be effective on deeply-embedded hair follicles. Since this procedure works by targeting the root of the hair, it is recommended that you avoid plucking, waxing, and electrolysis 6 weeks prior to the procedure so the root is left intact. A doctor or licensed technician should perform laser hair removal. This procedure is very expensive and multiple treatments are necessary. The average cost for one session of laser hair removal is $235, but costs may vary depending on the size of the treated area and number of treatments. This procedure can be used for pubic hair removal, but only for hair along the bikini line. Results are long lasting, but some hair may grow back. If hair does grow back, it is typically sparse and much finer than pre-treated hair.


6. Hair Removal Creams and Lotions

Special creams and lotions, referred to as depilatories, contain chemicals that dissolve the protein structure of hair and cause it to separate from the skin. Some depilatories can increase acne and cause skin irritation or chemical burns if the formula is too strong or the cream is left on too long. Depilatories cost $5 to $10. Results last about a week.


Side Effects of Hair Removal

Please note that hair removal in general may cause irritation of the skin, along with razor burn and/or ingrown hairs. Ingrown hairs form when the hair fails to grow out of the skin. The hair curls over inside the follicles under the skin (just like the "razor bump" hairs curl above the skin). By curling, the hair creates a painful "foreign body" reaction in the hair follicle. The resulting inflammation in the follicle then creates an unsightly "bump", oftentimes filled with pus. Products such as Tend Skin may reduce the occurrence of ingrown hairs and/or razor burn.


Methods Not Recommended for Pubic Hair Removal

While there are a wide variety of hair removal methods on the market, it’s important to note that not all methods are appropriate for pubic hair removal. Often, these methods are too strong to be used on such a sensitive area.


1. Epilators

Mechanical epilators are devices that pull out the entire hair follicle. These should not be used on sensitive skin areas such as face, genitals, or armpits because the method tends to be painful. In addition, the hair must be about a quarter inch or longer to work, and the epilator could still miss some hair. Mechanical epilators cost anywhere from $50 to $100. Results last about a week.


2. Electrology

Electrolysis is a very laborious method of hair removal because each hair must be treated individually. During electrolysis, a qualified professional inserts a needle under the skin that passes an electric current through the hair follicle to damage it. Because this process is so time-consuming and requires multiple treatments, it can be very expensive. Electrolysis can also be painful and there is a risk of scarring and infection. This procedure should only be performed on the eyebrows, face, thighs, abdomen, breasts, and legs. Results are long lasting, but some hair may grow back.






"Before You Pierce, Wax, or Shave." WebMD. WebMD, 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Brazilian Rush: Complete Guide to Brazilian Wax." Brazilian Rush. N.p., 31 May 2008. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Electrolysis Hair Removal: Benefits, How Many Treatments You'll Need, and More." WebMD. WebMD, 12 June 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.

"Laser Hair Removal: Benefits, Side Effects, and Cost." WebMD. WebMD, 26 June 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <>.


Last Updated 16 October 2012.

UCSB SexInfo Copyright © 2013 University of California, Santa Barbara. All Rights Reserved.